AHEAD Update – May, June, July 2011

*Welcome to the second AHEAD Update of 2011. Please note that URL hotlinks for many of the organizations mentioned below can be found at http://www.wcs-ahead.org/links.html. News on potential funding and job opportunities appears towards the end of this Update. If you would like to post an item in the next AHEAD Update, please just send it to us- thanks.


*Animal Heath Policy, Legislation and Trade in Beef in the Five Participating States of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) – This policy analysis product consists largely of information gathered from the public domain from the five KAZA member countries. Relevant documents have been summarized, collated and compiled into a single, easy-to-read report, which puts the critical issues of transboundary disease management and trade into the context of the KAZA TFCA. A comparative matrix and professional analysis provide additional insights into the complexities of health- and disease-related policy-making, both regionally and internationally. Further, a library of all legislation, policy documents and other references has been compiled and is now available through the open-access web-based library, Zotero (www.zotero.org). Anyone is welcome to access these references; please don't hesitate to email AHEAD Senior Program Manager Shirley Atkinson satkinson@wcs.org (for publishing / copyright reasons, interested parties require an electronic invitation to access the web-based Zotero database). We believe the report will serve as a valuable reference for veterinary, agriculture, conservation and related policy professionals working in each of the KAZA member countries, and beyond.

For a downloadable PDF of this new AHEAD informational product, please see http://www.wcs-ahead.org/workinggrps_kaza.html.

*AHEAD Online Library expanded – AHEAD has selected the free open-source online digital library Zotero (http://www.zotero.org) to house and share key scientific and policy documents and other resources. A library containing materials on policy and legislation related to animal health, disease and conservation in the southern Africa region, with subsections dedicated to fencing, control of transboundary animal diseases, and climate change, now contains approximately 800 relevant scientific reports, legislative and policy documents, occasional papers and reviews.

For an e-invitation to any of the following AHEAD Zotero databases, please contact AHEAD Senior Program Manager Shirley Atkinson satkinson@wcs.org (also see http://www.wcs-ahead.org/kaza/kaza_additional_resources.html):

Fencing – Houses over 400 scientific reports and papers used to conduct a strategic review of the environmental, social and economic impacts of game and veterinary fencing in Africa (with particular reference to the GLTFCA and KAZA TFCA). The final report (Ferguson and Hanks, 2010) is also included and in addition is downloadable as a PDF at the bottom of http://www.wcs-ahead.org/gltfca_grants/grants.html, and consists of ten sections (52 contributing authors) dealing with the impacts of fencing, erected for various purposes, on wildlife, livestock and livelihoods.

Policy/Legislation & Control of TADs (Transboundary Animal Diseases) – Houses over 350 documents assembled to conduct an analysis of the legal and policy frameworks and regulations related to the control of transboundary animal diseases within the five member states of the KAZA TFCA. The library includes the final report (as mentioned above, also downloadable in PDF at http://www.wcs-ahead.org/workinggrps_kaza.html), legislative documents (laws, regulations, other statutory instruments), policies, and papers related to rural development and land-use, as well as socio-economic impact of both animal diseases and conservation of natural resources. Documents are organized by country, regional or international body. In addition, an index of policy/legislation-related documents and an appendix of mini-abstracts of related documents used in preparing the report is available. Click to view or download a PDF of the Animal Health Policy, Legislation and Trade in Beef in the Five Participating States of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA-TFCA), the Index of Policy/Legislation-Related Documents or the Mini-Abstracts of Policy/Legislation-related documents.

Climate Change – Houses a selection of scientific reports and papers used to conduct a review of climate change observations, anticipated impacts and model projections for the KAZA TFCA. The review (included in the library) consolidates findings from studies focused in and around the KAZA TFCA, most of which have been published in the past 5 years (2005–2010).

*Will Reconnecting Ecosystems Allow Long-Distance Mammal Migrations to Resume? A Case Study of a Zebra Equus burchelli Migration in Botswana (2011), Bartlam-Brooks, HLA, Bonyongo, MC and Harris, S, Oryx 45: 210-216 –

Terrestrial wildlife migrations, once common, are now rare because of ecosystem fragmentation and uncontrolled hunting. Botswana historically contained migratory populations of many species but habitat fragmentation, especially by fences, has decreased the number and size of many of these populations. During a study investigating herbivore movement patterns in north-west Botswana we recorded a long-distance zebra Equus burchelli antiquorum migration between the Okavango Delta and Makgadikgadi grasslands, a round-trip distance of 588 km; 55% of 11 animals collared in the south-eastern peripheral delta made this journey. This was unexpected as, between 1968 and 2004, the migration could not have followed its present course because of the bisection of the route by a veterinary cordon fence. As little evidence exists to suggest that large-scale movements by medium-sized herbivores can be restored, it is of significant interest that this migration was established to the present highly directed route within 4 years of the fence being removed. The success of wildlife corridors, currently being advocated as the best way to re-establish ecosystem connectivity, relies on animals utilizing novel areas by moving between the connected areas. Our findings suggest that medium-sized herbivores may be able to re-establish migrations relatively quickly once physical barriers have been removed and that the success of future system linkages could be increased by utilizing past migratory routes.

*Sitting on the Fence? Policies and Practices in Managing Human-Wildlife Conflict in Limpopo Province, South Africa (2010), Anthony, BP, Scott, P and Antypas, A, Conservation & Society 8 (3): 225-240 –

Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs) at Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province along KNP's western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.

See http://www.conservationandsociety.org/text.asp?2010/8/3/225/73812 for access to the full paper.

*New paper on ecotourism development in the GLTFCA by AHEAD-GLTFCA Seed Grantee Petronella Chaminuka - Tourist Preferences for Ecotourism in Rural Communities Adjacent to Kruger National Park: A Choice Experiment Approach (2011), Chaminuka, P, Groeneveld, RA, Selomane, AO and van Ierland, EC, Tourism Management, doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.016 –

Ecotourism is the key through which rural communities are expected to get their share of the pie within the GLTFCA. But what prospects are there for this to materialise, and are there shared expectations between communities and the tourists visiting the TFCA? This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism attributes: village accommodation, village tours and visits to crafts markets. Data were collected from 319 tourists through choice experiments, and analyzed using a conditional probit model. Findings indicate reluctance on the part of all tourists to use accommodation facilities outside KNP, but interest to purchase village tours and visit village-based craft markets. MWTP was negative for accommodation for all income groups, but positive for village tours and crafts markets. Among international and high income groups of tourists, tourists were willing to pay much higher fees than proposed by communities. These findings suggest the potential for development of some limited low value ecotourism services in villages adjacent to KNP.
Please contact Petronella.Chaminuka@wur.nl for the full paper.

*Making Sense of One Health: Cooperating at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Health Interface, (April 2011), Leboeuf, A, Institut Francais des Relations Internationales – This study aims to review and analyze the One Health approach, focused on work at the interface between human health, animal health and the environment. The paper also attempts to illustrate how One Health emerged on the international scene, with the author making the case that, through the One Health approach, a new form of global governance is emerging. See http://www.ifri.org/index.php?page=contribution-detail&id=6553&id_provenance=88&provenance_context_id=13&lang=uk to download the PDF, or contact leboeuf@ifri.org.

*Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda (2011), Palacios G, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR, Gilardi KVK, Spelman L, Lukasik-Braum M, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (4): 711-713 –

The genetic relatedness of mountain gorillas and humans has led to concerns about interspecies transmission of infectious agents. Human-to-gorilla transmission may explain human metapneumovirus in 2 wild mountain gorillas that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in Rwanda in 2009. Surveillance is needed to ensure survival of these critically endangered animals.

See http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/17/4/711.htm?source=govdelivery for access to the full paper.

*IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas Transboundary Conservation Specialist Group's latest newsletter is now available – See www.tbpa.net.

*Free Conservation Biology textbook available, courtesy of Oxford University Press – Oxford University Press has made a Conservation Biology textbook freely available: Sodhi, N. S. and P. R. Ehrlich (Eds.) Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press (2010). Download the 350 pp book (6.4 MB) for free at: http://www.mongabay.com/conservation-biology-for-all.html.


*11th AHEAD (Animal & Human Health for the Environment And Development) Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA) Working Group (WG) meeting held March 2, 3 and 4, 2011 at the Mopani Rest Camp, Kruger National Park, South Africa, with more than 110 participants from Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa. This year's meeting themes included Human Health, Livelihoods and Their Links to Animal and Ecosystem Health in the GLTFCA; Animal Disease Control Measures: How Do These Affect Livelihoods?; Disease Transmission at the Interface; Governance, Law and Policy Challenges for the Implementation of the GLTFCA; Sustainable Development: How Do Economic Activities in TFCAs Affect Livelihoods, Profit and Conservation?; Monitoring of Disease; and Tools and Methodologies. PDFs of most of the PowerPoint presentations from the diverse agenda of the 11th AHEAD-GLTFCA WG meeting are now available online at http://www.wcs-ahead.org/workinggrps_limpopo.html. The final minutes from the 11th meeting of the AHEAD-Great Limpopo TFCA Working Group are posted there as well, and have been emailed to AHEAD-GLTFCA WG members who were in attendance. Special thanks go to Merle Whyte, our South African team of hosts, to the Rockefeller Foundation, and to the USFWS Wildlife Without Borders program for critical support to University of Pretoria and SANParks colleagues who organized the meeting.


*World Veterinary Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, October 10-14, 2011 – The World Veterinary Congress, being held in South Africa for the first time, is being organized by the World Veterinary Association and the South African Veterinary Association. The venue for the Congress is the International Convention Centre in Cape Town. The Congress offers a multidisciplinary array of themes and topics, within which One Health concepts feature prominently. The overall theme of “Caring for Animals: Healthy Communities” sets the scene for 12 separate scientific streams in more than 15 parallel sessions over the four Congress days. A number of pre- and post- Congress tours and workshops are planned, and a full accompanying persons program is also available. The major sessions include Production Animals and Wildlife, Small Animal, Exotic Animal, Animal Welfare, Veterinary Technology, Veterinary Nursing, Complementary Veterinary Medicine, Practice Management and Veterinary History. Sessions will be hosted by (for example) the University of Pretoria, the OIE, the World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association, and the World Veterinary Dental Congress. See www.worldvetcongress2011.com or contact Ms. Petrie Vogel worldvet2011@savetcon.co.za for more details.


*University of Edinburgh Online Masters Commonwealth Commission Scholarships – The University of Edinburgh's Global Health Academy has been awarded 15 fully funded studentships across four online Masters programmes within the domain of One World, One Health:

• MSc in Biodiversity Wildlife and Ecosystem Health
• MSc in International Animal Health
• MSc in Global Health and Infectious Diseases (formerly MSc in Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases)
• MSc in Global Health and Non-Communicable Diseases

Students enrolled in these Masters programmes become members of the Global Health Academy community which encourages both intra- and inter-disciplinary engagement and communication. The Global Health Academy initiative cuts across the traditional vertical health structures moving to novel integrated health systems training. The aim is to promote a global community of practice. Students taking these courses find them rewarding in the opportunity they present to engage with professionals from industry, medicine, policy and research. The scholarship includes full tuition fee and resources to enhance student participation, access and research skills. This includes participation in Uganda-based summer school; contribution towards student costs of internet access & printing (journal articles, etc); and a contribution to MSc project costs (materials, travel, etc). Applicants who are eligible for these scholarships should apply for one of the four programmes in the first instance and notify the programme director of their intention to apply for the scholarship. The programme director will then give you further information on how to apply. The closing date for scholarship applications is Monday 30 May 2011 at 0900 hours BST.
For details about the scholarships (including the list of eligible developing Commonwealth countries), please see: http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/student-funding/postgraduate/e-learning/commonwealth and http://www.web.mvm.ed.ac.uk/.

*United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-L’oreal International Fellowships Programme for Young Women in Life Sciences – This Fellowship aims to identify and reward fifteen committed and talented young women scientists from all over the world, who are engaged in pursuing research at the doctoral or post-doctoral level in one or more allied fields of life sciences including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, agriculture, medicine, pharmacy and physiology. Candidates should have or be pursuing a PhD and be under 35. Special attention will be given to candidates from Least Developed Countries. Candidates must be nominated by their National Commission, which will submit names (four per Member State) to UNESCO. The award is up to $20,000 for up to 1 year, which may be extended for one additional year. Deadline for applications is June 30th, 2011.
For details, see http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=44170&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

*Job Announcement: Ecologist/Biologist: Gorongosa Restoration Project (GRP) – GRP is a U.S. not-for-profit organization which works with the Government of Mozambique to protect and restore the ecosystem of Gorongosa National Park and to develop the potential for ecotourism to benefit local communities. Job Requirements: Master’s degree in biology or ecology; work experience of five or more years; solid knowledge of conservation areas in Mozambique; command of written and spoken Portuguese. Job tasks: Implementation of 1) a vegetation monitoring network; 2) control methods against invasive species; 3) biologic research projects. Location: Based in the Gorongosa National Park, Sofala Province, Mozambique. Interested candidates are encouraged to send the following documents: current resume, copies of certificates related to job description, contact information for two referees. Please send all documentation to: GRP Human Resources: samueln@gorongosa.net. More information about GRP can be found at: www.gorongosa.net.

If you have items for the next AHEAD Update, please just let us know – thanks.

"What is AHEAD?" Animal & Human Health for the Environment And Development was launched at the 2003 IUCN World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa. By assembling a ‘dream team’ of veterinarians, ecologists, biologists, social and economic scientists, agriculturists, wildlife managers, public health specialists and others from across East and southern Africa, the Wildlife Conservation Society, IUCN, and a range of partners tapped into some of the most innovative conservation and development thinking on the African continent- and AHEAD was born. Since then, a range of programs addressing conservation, health, and concomitant development challenges have been launched with the support of a growing list of implementing partners and donors who see the intrinsic value of what WCS has called the “One World, One Health” approach. AHEAD is a convening, facilitative mechanism, working to create enabling environments that allow different and often competing sectors to literally come to the same table and find collaborative ways forward to address challenges at the interface of wildlife health, livestock health, and human health and livelihoods. We convene stakeholders, help delineate conceptual frameworks to underpin planning, management and research, and provide technical support and resources for projects stakeholders identify as priorities. AHEAD recognizes the need to look at health and disease not in isolation but within a given region's environmental and socioeconomic context.

All the best,

Steve & Mark